RFID is an acronym for Radio Frequency Identification. RFID is one member in the family of Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) technologies and is a fast and reliable means of identifying just about any material object. This project can be used for security purpose where it gives information about the authorized persons and unauthorized persons. This can be applied in real time systems as such in recording the attendance, in the companies, airports for accessing the passports and in industries to know who are authorized. RFID is increasingly used with biometric technologies for security. Primarily, the two main components involved in a Radio Frequency Identification system are the Transponder (tags that are attached to the object) and the Interrogator (RFID reader). Communication between the RFID reader and tags occurs wirelessly and generally doesn’t require a line of sight between the devices.
RFID tags are categorized as either active or passive. Active RFID tags are powered by an internal battery and are typically read/write, i.e., tag data can be rewritten and/or modified. An active tag’s memory size varies according to application requirements; some systems operate with up to 1MB of memory. Passive RFID tags operate without a separate external power source and obtain operating power generated from the reader. This project uses passive tags. Read-only tags are typically passive and are programmed with a unique set of data (usually 32 to 128 bits) that cannot be modified. The reader has three main functions: energizing, demodulating and decoding. The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and to read and write data to it.
In this project, the RFID module reader typically contains a module (transmitter and receiver), a control unit and a coupling element (antenna). This module is interfaced with the micro controller and when the card is brought near to the RFID module it reads the data in the card and displays on the LCD. If the data in the card is matched with the data in the program memory then it compares and displays authorized message. If the data is not matched it displays unauthorized. For authorized message, the door gets opened and the person gets in after sometime the door gets closed. If it is an unauthorized person it alerts the persons through a buzzer. The RFID module indicates a buzzer whenever it reads the data from the RFID card.
The significant advantage of all types of RFID systems is the non contact, non-line-of-sight nature of the technology. Tags can be read through a variety of substances such as snow, fog, ice, paint, crusted grime, and other visually and environmentally challenging conditions, where barcodes or other optically read technologies would be useless. This project can provide security for the industries, companies, etc.
This project uses regulated 5v, 500mA power supply. 7805, a three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12v step down transformer. The RFID module requires a separate +5v power supply.
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Even if you have any queries or suggestions while implementing the project, please feel free to share your code so that we can suggest and solve your queries.
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40.RFID BASED ELECTRONIC PASSPORT SYSTEM
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