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Robust Railway Crack Detection Scheme (RRCDS) Using LED-LDR Assembly

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In India, most of the commercial transport is being carried out by the railway network and therefore, any problems in the same has the capacity to induce major damage to the economy-notwithstanding the societal impact of loss of life or limb. This paper proposes a cost effective yet robust solution to the problem of railway crack detection utilizing a method that is unique in the sense that while it is simple, the idea is completely novel and hitherto untested. The paper discusses the technical and design aspects in detail and also provides the proposed robust crack detection algorithm. The paper also presents the details of the implementation results of the RRCDS utilizing simple components inclusive of a GPS module, GSM Modem and LED-LDR based crack detector assembly. The proposed scheme has been modeled for robust implementation in the Indian scenario.


In today’s world, transport is a key necessity because in its absence it would be impossible for products to be consumed in areas which are not in the immediate vicinity of the production centers. Throughout history, transport has been a necessity for the expansion of trade. Economic prosperity can be achieved by increasing the rationality and capacity of transport systems. The proper operation and maintenance of transport infrastructure has a great impact on the economy. Transport, being one of the biggest drainers of energy, its sustainability and safety are issues of paramount importance. In India, rail transport occupies a prominent position in quenching the ever burgeoning needs of a rapidly growing economy. However, in terms of the reliability and safety parameters, global standards have not yet been truly reached.

The Indian railway network today has a track length of 113,617 kilometers (70,598 mi).over a route of 63,974 kilometers (39,752 mi) and 7,083 stations. Though rail transport in India growing at a rapid pace, the associated safety infrastructure facilities have not kept up with the aforementioned proliferation. Our facilities are inadequate compared to the international standards and as a result, there have been frequent derailments that have resulted in severe loss of valuable human lives and property as well. On analysis of the factors that cause these rail accidents, recent statistics reveal that approximately 60% of all the rail accidents have derailments as their cause, of which about 90% are due to cracks on the rails either due to natural causes (like excessive expansion due to heat) or due to antisocial elements. Hence these cracks in railway lines have been a perennial problem, which has to be addressed with utmost attention due to the frequency of rail usage in India. These cracks and other problems with the rails generally go unnoticed due to improper maintenance and the currently irregular and manual track line monitoring that is being carried out. The high frequency of trains and the unreliability of manual labour have put forth a need for an automated system to monitor the presence of crack on the railway lines.

Owing to the crucial repercussions of this problem, this paper presents an implementation of an efficient and cost effective solution suitable for large scale application.With the advent of powerful digital signal processors, Image Processing techniques have been explored to formulate solutions to the problem of railway crack detection. Though it provides good accuracy, this method uses techniques like image segmentation, morphology and edge detection all of which take a lot of processing power and an extreme amount of time rendering the robot slow and thereby unsuitable. Recent research has investigated the use of microwave horn antennas for crack detection. This technique was found to produce very accurate results in lab based testing. But, unfortunately it requires spectrum analyzers which are both costly and also can’t be placed onboard a moving robot because of their delicacy. Eddy current based methods are used to tide over limitations associated with ultrasonic’s and microwave techniques.


In this project, we have presented the rationale, design of our robust LED-LDR based railway crack detection scheme. The authors hope that their idea can be implemented in large scale in the long run to facilitate better safety standards for rail tracks and provide effective testing infrastructure for achieving better results in the future.

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